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The digital reconstruction (left) and fossil specimen of Apidima 2, which scientists discovered in Greece and identified as a Neanderthal.

A 210,000-year-old skull found in Greece is the oldest modern human discovered outside Africa. It changes our timeline of human migration.

Scientists think modern humans left Africa 70,000 years ago. But a 210,000-year-old skull in Greece indicates that some migration happened earlier.

Nibbled-on bones found in a cave revealed that our Neanderthal ancestors ate each other. Scientists may have figured out why.

A rapid global warming 120,000 years ago left our Neanderthal ancestors facing starvation. So they turned to cannibalism.
This graphical abstract shows two waves of Denisovan ancestry have shaped present-day humans.

Ancient humans had sex and interbred with a mysterious group known as the Denisovans more than once, new research has found

Early humans spread around the globe, encountered hominin species like Denisovans and Neanderthals, and interbred with them. We see traces of that in DNA today.
The ladder shape composed of red horizontal and vertical lines (centre left) dates to older than 64,000 years and was made by Neanderthals.

Scientists have pinpointed when the first cave paintings were made — and it means Neanderthals were more advanced than they thought

Long before "modern" humans reached Europe, our Neanderthal cousins were creating cultural objects and painting animals in caves in Spain.

Ancient tooth plaque reveals what our extinct human relatives really ate

The DNA preserved in prehistoric plaque shows the Neanderthal diet differed drastically by region. While some feasted on wild sheep, others ate moss and nuts.

This is the most important difference between Homo sapiens and Neanderthals

Modern humans survived. Neanderthals didn't. Here's one factor that might have contributed to their demise.